The Volume class provides the abstraction layer required to perform all operations on an existing volume, which means that there will be volume creation operations that will be invoked from other class instances, since the new volume we want to create doesn’t exist yet and we cannot use the Volume class to manage it.
The base resource in storage is the volume, and to create one the cinderlib provides three different mechanisms, each one with a different method that will be called on the source of the new volume.
So we have:
- Empty volumes that have no resource source and will have to be created directly on the Backend via the create_volume method.
- Cloned volumes that will be created from a source Volume using its clone method.
- Volumes from a snapshot, where the creation is initiated by the create_volume method from the Snapshot instance.
Cinder NFS backends will create an image and not a directory where to store files, which falls in line with Cinder being a Block Storage provider and not filesystem provider like Manila is.
So assuming that we have an lvm variable holding an initialized Backend instance we could create a new 1GB volume quite easily:
print('Stats before creating the volume are:') pprint(lvm.stats()) vol = lvm.create_volume(1) pprint(lvm.stats())
Now, if we have a volume that already contains data and we want to create a new volume that starts with the same contents we can use the source volume as the cloning source:
cloned_vol = vol.clone()
Some drivers support cloning to a bigger volume, so we could define the new size in the call and the driver would take care of extending the volume after cloning it, this is usually tightly linked to the extend operation support by the driver.
Cloning to a greater size would look like this:
new_size = vol.size + 1 cloned_bigger_volume = vol.clone(size=new_size)
Cloning efficiency is directly linked to the storage backend in use, so it will not have the same performance in all backends. While some backends like the Ceph/RBD will be extremely efficient others may range from slow to being actually implemented as a dd operation performed by the driver attaching source and destination volumes.
vol = snap.create_volume()
Just like with the cloning functionality, not all storage backends can efficiently handle creating a volume from a snapshot.
On volume creation we can pass additional parameters like a name or a description, but these will be irrelevant for the actual volume creation and will only be useful to us to easily identify our volumes or to store additional information.
Available fields with their types can be found in Cinder’s Volume OVO definition, but most of them are only relevant within the full Cinder service.
We can access these fields as if they were part of the cinderlib Volume instance, since the class will try to retrieve any non cinderlib Volume from Cinder’s internal OVO representation.
Some of the fields we could be interested in are:
- id: UUID-4 unique identifier for the volume.
- user_id: String identifier, in Cinder it’s a UUID, but we can choose here.
- project_id: String identifier, in Cinder it’s a UUID, but we can choose here.
- snapshot_id: ID of the source snapshot used to create the volume. This will be filled by cinderlib.
- host: In Cinder used to store the host@backend#pool information, here we can just keep some identification of the process that wrote this.
- size: Volume size in GBi.
- availability_zone: In case we want to define AZs.
- status: This represents the status of the volume, and the most important statuses are available, error, deleted, in-use, creating.
- attach_status: This can be attached or detached.
- scheduled_at: Date-time when the volume was scheduled to be created. Currently not being used by cinderlib.
- launched_at: Date-time when the volume creation was completed. Currently not being used by cinderlib.
- deleted: Boolean value indicating whether the volume has already been deleted. It will be filled by cinderlib.
- terminated_at: When the volume delete was sent to the backend.
- deleted_at: When the volume delete was completed.
- display_name: Name identifier, this is passed as name to all cinderlib volume creation methods.
- display_description: Long description of the volume, this is passed as description to all cinderlib volume creation methods.
- source_volid: ID of the source volume used to create this volume. This will be filled by cinderlib.
- bootable: Not relevant for cinderlib, but maybe useful for the cinderlib user.
Cinderlib automatically generates a UUID for the id if one is not provided at volume creation time, but the caller can actually provide a specific id.
By default the id is limited to valid UUID and this is the only kind of ID that is guaranteed to work on all drivers. For drivers that support non UUID IDs we can instruct cinderlib to modify Cinder’s behavior and allow them. This is done on cinderlib initialization time passing non_uuid_ids=True.
Once we have created a Volume we can use its delete method to permanently remove it from the storage backend.
In Cinder there are safeguards to prevent a delete operation from completing if it has snapshots (unless the delete request comes with the cascade option set to true), but here in cinderlib we don’t, so it’s the callers responsibility to delete the snapshots.
Deleting a volume with snapshots doesn’t have a defined behavior for Cinder drivers, since it’s never meant to happen, so some storage backends delete the snapshots, other leave them as they were, and others will fail the request.
Example of creating and deleting a volume:
vol = lvm.create_volume(size=1) vol.delete()
When deleting a volume that was the source of a cloning operation some backends cannot delete them (since they have copy-on-write clones) and they just keep them as a silent volume that will be deleted when its snapshot and clones are deleted.
Many storage backends and Cinder drivers support extending a volume to have more space and you can do this via the extend method present in your Volume instance.
If the Cinder driver doesn’t implement the extend operation it will raise a NotImplementedError.
The only parameter received by the extend method is the new size, and this must always be greater than the current value because cinderlib is not validating this at the moment.
Example of creating, extending, and deleting a volume:
vol = lvm.create_volume(size=1) print('Vol %s has %s GBi' % (vol.id, vol.size)) vol.extend(2) print('Extended vol %s has %s GBi' % (vol.id, vol.size)) vol.delete()
All other methods available in the Volume class will be explained in their relevant sections:
- load will be explained together with json, jsons, dump, and dumps properties, and the to_dict method in the Serialization section.
- refresh will reload the volume from the metadata storage and reload any lazy loadable property that has already been loaded. Covered in the Serialization and Resource tracking sections.
- create_snapshot method will be covered in the Snapshots section together with the snapshots attribute.
- attach, detach, connect, and disconnect methods will be explained in the Connections section.